Occurs when the skin and underlying tissue freezes due to being exposed to extreme cold. Exposure to the cold first causes frost-nip, which is reversible skin irritation. If rewarming doesn't occur frost-nip can progress to frostbite. Frostbite affects the fingers, toes and face, and tends to occur in those who do not feel the effects of frost-nip or those who cannot or will not remove themselves from the cold. The disorder is more often associated with alcoholism, psychiatric illness, diabetes, smokers and previous frostbite.